What is the Framework of Various Approaches?
The discussions under a Framework of Various Approaches (FVA) were initiated in COP17. In broad terms, the term designates the framework in which mitigation will be carried out under the new protocol or agreement, post 2020 (but ideally starting before, so that the new system can retrofit from this “learning by doing” phase).
The current approach on mitigation in the Kyoto Protocol is based on:
*commitments of quantified emissions limitation reductions objectives (QELROS) by developed countries (which means a commitment to emit a “cap” of limited amount of greenhouse gases);
*each unit of this cap being an AAU;
*other units also generated by flexible mechanisms such as the CDM (Clean Development Mechanism), JI (Joint Implementation), Emissions Trading and removal by carbon sinks, them being market-driven.
The Framework of Various Approaches should redesign this current mitigation system, starting from scratch and bearing in mind that post-2020 is likely to be a scenario:
(i) with more participants: developing countries putting forward voluntary pledges, for instance; and
(ii) defined by more numerous mechanisms and alternatives for mitigation, possibly national and subnational schemes already in force but that do not account as compliance of obligations under the KP currently (China, for instance, is launching a new carbon trading scheme, and there are many others including in the subnational level, such as the Californian one, in the U.S.).
The idea is that units generated in a country can be transferred to another, in order to comply with the obligations under the new instrument (as it already happens by means of the flexible mechanisms).
Overall, the new framework is opened to many and varied approaches altogether, which can include economy wide caps (as the current model) or targets, which could be not only national, but also sub-national and sectoral; and which can be driven by the market and through non-market approaches at the same time.