What potential entry points are there in the Paris Agreement to reflect the principle of equity? Can you identify relevant provisions in the Paris Agreement and next steps for parties to, for example, ensure we reduce the ambition gap and pressurise countries with very low NDCs to increase ambition in line with equity? Advice: In […]

If the USA were to adopt an obstructive stance, could an argument be made that they are not complying with their obligation to negotiate in good faith? What is the scope of Pacta sunt servanda and the obligation of good faith in this context ? What are the SB chairs’ and COP President’s powers should […]

What procedural remedies are available to Parties who assert that another party does not act in line with its commitments under the Paris Agreement? Advice: There have been indications that the US might revise its nationally determined contribution (NDC) under the Paris Agreement downwards. Subsequently, the US president announced the country’s withdrawal …

Please advise on: (a) the current requirements, recent developments and current proposals concerning the regulation of emissions from international transport (bunker fuels) under:         (i) the UNFCCC;         (ii) the ICAO; and         (iii) the IMO; and (b) elements of the regulation of international transport of […]