If and to what extent does Art.8 of the Paris Agreement in conjunction with accompanying COP decision 1/CP.21, paragraph 51, exclude the application of the general rules of public international law, in particular on state responsibility? Advice: The relevant loss and damage provisions adopted at the Paris Conference are contained in both the Paris Agreement …

In December 2015, the 21st Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) adopted the Paris Agreement. It establishes a general framework for a universal, long-term climate regime under the UNFCCC. Following its entry into force, the Agreement will be formally binding on its Parties. This paper …

This Guide summarises the key provisions of the Paris Agreement, which was adopted in Paris on 12 December 2015, at the 21st Conference of the Parties of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. It is meant as a companion for government and non-government participants in the negotiations under the Ad Hoc Group on the […]

What are the legal obligations of developing country parties under the Paris Agreement? Advice: Under articles 2 and 4, the general objective of the Paris Agreement (“the Agreement”) is to limit the increase in the global average temperature to “well below 2 °C” and to pursue “efforts” to limit the increase to 1.5 °C. This is …

In Article 7, paragraph 1, on Technology transfer and development, some Parties have introduced a reference to “responding to gender sensitive needs”. What does this addition mean, and what are its potential implications and advantages? Advice: Gender issues have been increasingly recognised as an integral part of the international community’s …