Is there any way to hook countries, such as the USA, who will only agree to take on voluntary emission reductions commitments in the new climate agreement currently being negotiated, to somehow commit to legally binding obligations in the future through something like a ‘dormant commitment clause’ or another provision/approach? Advice: If …

In the Bonn ADP session (June 2015) Parties are working on the basis of the “Geneva text” but – in addition – have also created a working document to capture the ongoing discussions (see http://unfccc.int/meetings/bonn_jun_2015/session/8857.php).  As a result, there will be two ADP documents – the Geneva text and the …

1) What greenhouse gases will be covered in the new climate agreement ? will they be all the gases not addressed under the Montreal Protocol or some only? What guidance and information is there on this issue ? 2) Please can you clarify the relationship between the UNFCCC and the Montreal Protocol. Summary: The UNFCCC […]

What are the legal and governance questions involved if an institution serves two agreements: how can an institution such as the WIM be under the guidance of the COP and the governing body of the new agreement at the same time? what does this mean? Joint COP/PARIS COP agenda items? Advice: It is not uncommon, […]

What is the impact of where topics are placed within the Agreement, eg. Loss and Damage? Does the placement affect the force of a particular provision, or of the agreement as a whole? More specifically: a) What is the legal status of the Preamble versus other sections of the agreement? b)¬†What is the legal status […]