1. Paris Agreement Article 13(7), (8), (9) and (10) requires the Parties to provide certain information, using the textual language of “shall” and “should”, whereas decision 1/CP.21 para. 91 states that Parties (save for LDCs and SIDs) “shall” submit the information in Article 13 “as appropriate” and no …

Can the Adaptation Fund Board decide to seek accreditation as a Green Climate Fund implementing entity on its own accord, or does it need a mandate from the CMP? Will an accreditation, once it has occurred, need some form of approval from the CMP? Summary: The decision to seek accreditation falls under the definition of a […]

What are the legal obligations of developing country parties under the Paris Agreement? Advice: Under articles 2 and 4, the general objective of the Paris Agreement (“the Agreement”) is to limit the increase in the global average temperature to “well below 2 °C” and to pursue “efforts” to limit the increase to 1.5 °C. This is …

The Co-Chairs of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (ADP) have just issued a revised document. It contains sections on mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology transfer and capacity building. The new ‘Draft Agreement’ comprises 26 articles on 9 pages that cover all the areas under negotiations. However, many …

Could you provide a broad overview of the constitutional structure governing the President’s ability to enter into and execute international agreements?  Could you then examine the proposed core elements of the new climate treaty/agreement/protocol – mitigation, adaptation, finance, technology development and transfer, and capacity-building …