1. Can you confirm the interpretation that committees are in fact SBs for the purpose of Art 7.2? If this is the case, how do they differ from the more familiar subsidiary bodies: SBI and SBSTA? 2. Does this mean that there is no automatic hierarchy of ‘committees’ as sitting beneath SBSTA and SBI except […]

Are there any barriers in national or international law to the provisional application of amendments to a protocol?  National jurisdictions in which we are particularly interested are Australia, US, Canada, Japan, Russia, Norway, Switzerland and if possible Belarus, Kazakhstan, Turkey, Austria and other EU member states so far as possible.  Have these …

1. What makes a text a “treaty”?  2. And what distinguishes a “treaty” text from political agreements, COP/CMP Decisions, political agreements, road maps, accords, etc? 3. For example, does a treaty text require certain “final” provisions, e.g. on ratification? Does the wording of the provisions make a difference, e.g. binding “shall” …

In Doha, the Parties noted (and endorsed) various procedural matters previously agreed by the ADP in Bonn in May 2012 and adopted the ADP’s Conclusions and the ADP Decision. In particular, the conference of the parties (COP) endorsed the multi-­‐year chairing arrangements agreed in May 2012, noted the agenda as adopted by the ADP in […]

The package of decisions adopted in Durban has at least four significant implications: (A) It has the effect of de-linking the post-2020 regime from the Bali Action Plan; (B) This de-linking, together with the lack of reference to “common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities” (CBDR) in the ADP Decision, opens the door …