1. Is the concept of “supplementarity” defined within the international climate regime? 2. Is the issue of supplementarity/trading as supplemental mentioned in any CMP decisions? 3. Is the issue mentioned in any COP decisions other than 15/CP.7? 1. Definition of “Supplementarity” 1.1 Our research has not uncovered a definition for the …

1.Is it possible for countries to ratify a COP decision? If so, which countries have?  2.Did the Congress of the USA pass a bill or another legal act when ratifying the UNFCCC which declares that the USA cannot enter into substantial obligations by way of COP decision unless the Congress expresses its consent? 3. If […]

In designing measures to address emissions from international shipping, does the International Maritime Organization (IMO) have the legal mandate to include exemptions – for the purposes of protecting Small Island Developing States – either on the basis of exempting specific countries, or alternatively by setting de minimis thresholds (such as tonnage …

1. If the KP is extended to a second commitment period, what are the legal requirements needed (or are there any available legal avenues) to prohibit or limit the carry over of AAUs from the first to the second commitment period, or limit trading of such AAUs under Article 17. 2. What legal text/language would […]

How would the legal text look like to ensure that finance commitments by developed countries to support mitigation and adaptation in developing countries  are additional to resources developed countries provide to meet their existing Overseas Development Assistance commitments (to provide 0.7% of their GNI as aid)?  Are there precedents that can be …