431 results found

Summary of COP28 outcomes (27/02/2024)

Obligation to submit BTR and flexibility under Article 13 of the Paris Agreement (30/01/2024)

Query: Please advise if the flexibility provisions under Article 13 of the Paris Agreement mean that least developed countries (LDCs) and small island developing States (SIDS) are not obliged to submit biennial transparency reports (BTRs) under the Enhanced Transparency Framework (ETF). Advice: The query is concerned with the nature of the reporting requirement under the […]

Means of implementation in the Global Goal on Adaptation (22/01/2024)

Developed country parties are contending that Means of implementation (MOI) cannot be added to the Global Goal on Adaptation (GGA) framework. They are raising three arguments in support of this view: Do these arguments have a sound legal basis?   Advice: Summary In our view, the three arguments do not have a sound legal basis. […]

NGOs without observer status engagement at COPs (22/01/2024)

We are an NGO currently in the process of obtaining UNFCCC observer status, although we have observer status for ECOSOC. What opportunities are there for NGOs lacking observer status at the UNFCCC to make submissions or participate in the negotiation meetings? Advice: Summary Access to meetings and sessions of the UNFCCC for NGOs is regulated […]

COP28 – SBSTA 59 Article 6 first week progress summary (08/12/2023)

Downloads available Advice on Q75-23 Art6 week 1 summary (246 kB)

Guide to the Paris Agreement (30/11/2023)

The Guide to the Paris Agreement has been updated just in time for this year’s conference. It builds on the 2020 version of the guide by including relevant information from the subsequent CMA decisions. Downloads available Guide to the Paris Agreement (2 MB)

Global Stocktake Explainer (28/11/2023)

This explainer on the Global Stocktake process will be of use to those negotiators new to the topic or those that need a refresher. In addition, a separate 2-page to this explainer specifically looks at the process of the first GST taking place at COP28, providing, among others, a visual summary of the 17 key findings […]

UNFCCC Secretariat Trust Fund for Participation (04/08/2023)

Query: 1. What is the legal basis for the secretariat’s practice of funding the participation of eligible representatives from developing countries and economies in transition? 2. What are the eligibility criteria? 3. Are there grounds for reviewing the eligibility criteria? Advice: 1. Legal basis for the secretariat’s practice According to a 2017 UNFCCC document entitled […]

Joint work with the Convention on Biological Diversity to operationalise Art. 6.8 of the Paris Agreement (30/10/2023)

Queries: 1. Please provide examples, including a legal basis for joint work programmes between conventions, to coordinate across international instruments, in particular the UNFCCC and the CBD? 2. Please consider the operationalisation of the non market-based mechanism under Article 6.8 of the Paris Agreement and how such a Joint Work Programme between conventions, to coordinate […]

SB 58 Summary (09/10/2023)

The 58th sessions of the SBSTA and the SBI took place in Bonn over the period 05 to 15 June 2023 (SB 58). Rather than providing a comprehensive summary of negotiations on all SB 58 agenda items, the paper highlights and summarizes discussions on the key subject areas. Downloads available SB 58 Summary- English (3 MB)SB 58 Summary- […]

UNFCCC Secretariat Trust Fund for Participation (04/08/2023)

Query: 1. What is the legal basis for the secretariat’s practice of funding the participation of eligible representatives from developing countries and economies in transition? 2. What are the eligibility criteria? 3. Are there grounds for reviewing the eligibility criteria? Advice: 1. Legal basis for the secretariat’s practice According to a 2017 UNFCCC document entitled […]

Legal status of work that has provisionally commenced based on provisional agendas at SB 58 (21/07/2023)

Queries: 1. At the 58th sessions of the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) and the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) (SB 58) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), the agendas for the sessions were not adopted at the opening of the sessions. If the agendas were not adopted […]

UNGA Trust Funds: How are they established and administered? (02/11/2022)

How are UNGA Trust Funds established? How are UNGA Trust Funds administered? Advice: United Nations General Assembly (“UNGA”) Trust Funds have been identified as a possible mechanism for establishing a Loss and Damage Finance Facility (“LDFF”) outside the structure of the UNFCCC negotiations. This research memo will set out how the UNGA Trust Funds are […]

Explicatif de l’Article 6, Accord de Paris – Marchés du carbone (30/05/2022)

Finance for Loss and Damage (13/06/2023)

Query Advice Executive summary While the Convention and the Paris Agreement do not contain obligations to provide financial resources to specifically address loss and damage, the language in Article 8 of the Paris Agreement potentially covers the provision of financial resources to developing countries as a means to pursue the implementation of Article 8. While […]

Definition of “emissions avoidance”, “emissions reduction”, and “emissions removal” (12/06/2023)

Query: What do the terms “emissions avoidance”, “emissions reduction”, and “emissions removal” mean in the context of the UNFCCC and Paris Agreement? Executive Summary: These terms are not uniformly defined in the UNFCCC or the Paris Agreement, and there is no single source of truth as to their meaning in the context of these instruments. […]

Ability to consider phasing out fossil fuels (09/06/2023)

Query: Are there any legal obstacles that would prevent the Parties to the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement to consider, under these agreements, the necessity to phase out the extraction and use of fossil fuels? Executive Summary: We have not identified in any of the provisions of the UNFCCC or the Paris Agreement support for […]

Just Transition (12/01/2023)

Query 1. What are the different interpretations of “just transition” and in which context do they arise? 2. What are the possible entry points for this issue to be discussed in the UNFCCC process? Advice 1. Defining a just transition For the International Labour Organisation (ILO) ‘just transition’ means greening the economy in a way […]

Loss and damage explainer (02/06/2023)

Our Loss and Damage Explainer sheds light on the efforts made by the Parties to the UNFCCC and Paris Agreement to address the issue of loss and damage associated with the adverse effects of climate change on vulnerable developing countries. It offers an overview of the key issues related to loss and damage that are […]

Summary of COP 27 outcomes (23/03/2023)

On 6 – 20 November 2022, the annual climate conference under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) took place in Sharm-el-Sheikh, Egypt. It was originally scheduled to finish on 18 November but ran into overtime as parties struggled to find consensus on key issues. This joint publication with LACLIMA provides a summary of […]