1. Following the postponement of COP26 (originally planned for November 2020), by when do Parties have to communicate or update their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) pursuant to Article 4 of the Paris Agreement? 2. If the Parties are bound to communicate or update their NDCs by 2020, is there any legal basis to say that, […]

Clarify to what extent, if at all, do the annexes to the UNFCCC apply to the Paris Agreement. Summary: In order to respond to this question, I have undertaken a classic treaty interpretation analysis. My conclusion is that, while some of the context to the terms “developing country Parties” and “developed country Parties” suggests …

What are the legal consequences if parties to the Paris Agreement communicate a joint nationally determined contribution (NDC) but do not notify the secretariat in accordance with Article 4 para.16 of the Agreement? Advice: According to Article 4 para.16 of the Paris Agreement parties, including regional economic integration organizations and their …

If the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage associated with Climate Change Impacts (“WIM”) were guided and accountable to both (1) the Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP) and (2) the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement (CMA) (rather than …