Query: What is meant by each of these terms in relation to Loss and Damage: ‘address, avert and minimise’? Are these concepts linked to loss and damage and/or adaptation and/or mitigation? Which arguments support the interpretation that these three concepts are part of the L&D provisions? Advice: 1. Background and context The Paris Agreement …

Background The CMA Decision 3/CMA.3 contains the rules, modalities and procedures for the running of the market-based mechanism of Article 6.4. The mechanism replicates many of the features of the Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol, but it also comes with new requirements and possibilities, given the different context of the Paris …

1. Following the postponement of COP26 (originally planned for November 2020), by when do Parties have to communicate or update their Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) pursuant to Article 4 of the Paris Agreement? 2. If the Parties are bound to communicate or update their NDCs by 2020, is there any legal basis to say that, […]

Clarify to what extent, if at all, do the annexes to the UNFCCC apply to the Paris Agreement. Summary: In order to respond to this question, I have undertaken a classic treaty interpretation analysis. My conclusion is that, while some of the context to the terms “developing country Parties” and “developed country Parties” suggests …