Could you please clarify the legal meaning of the terms “double counting”, “real, permanent, additional and verified” and “net decrease”, in the context of the UNFCCC and its market instruments, particularly the Framework of Various Approaches, New Market Mechanism and Non Market-based Approaches?  Advice: The UNFCCC aims to stabilize “the …

How can a new 2015 climate agreement to be adopted in Paris make reference to provisions, mechanisms, rules and other arrangements developed under the Kyoto Protocol and ensure that they apply to those Parties (of the Agreement) that have not ratified the KP, have not agreed to a second commitment period or failed to ratify […]

During the negotiating session in Bonn in June 2010, the AWG-KP requested the Secretariat’s legal service to prepare a paper on how to avoid a gap between the first and second commitment periods and to identify the legal consequences of any such gap. The formal request is as follows: “In the context of decision 1/CMP.1 […]

Since the UNFCCC Conference held in Copenhagen in December 2009, there has been some talk of a ‘potential transition period’ in which the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol is temporarily extended for 2 or 3 years in order to give additional time for a second formal commitment period to be agreed between the […]

What is the Framework of Various Approaches? The discussions under a Framework of Various Approaches (FVA) were initiated in COP17. In broad terms, the term designates the framework in which mitigation will be carried out under the new protocol or agreement, post 2020 (but ideally starting before, so that the new system can retrofit from […]