How do you ensure permanence of the international mechanism on loss and damage? Background and Summary: There are many countries who state that their chief concern is to ensure the permanence of an international mechanism. They fear that, given its current mandate and scheduled review, the Warsaw International Mechanism could disappear after 2016. For …

What are the legal implications, and pros and cons, of the various options for entry into force provision in the September 2015 draft of the Geneva text? Advice: Option 1: This agreement [shall][will] [enter into force][come into effect on and be implemented from 2020] [on the[ thirtieth][ ninetieth] day after the date on which not […]

What are the necessary procedural steps required for the US government to ratify/accede to a new climate agreement without the involvement of parliament/congress following signature in Paris? Advice: An overview of the mechanism by which the President of the United States may enter into executive agreements without the advice and consent of the Senate …

Could you please clarify the legal meaning of the terms “double counting”, “real, permanent, additional and verified” and “net decrease”, in the context of the UNFCCC and its market instruments, particularly the Framework of Various Approaches, New Market Mechanism and Non Market-based Approaches?  Advice:  The UNFCCC aims to stabilize “the …

Please advise on the likely status of: emissions trading credits relating to Article 17 of the Kyoto Protocol (emissions trading); and emission reduction units relating to Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol (joint implementation) under the Paris Agreement due to be agreed at the end of this year and which is intended to come into force […]