What are the legal implications of the words “takes note of…” in the Copenhagen Accord? The Accord itself is a non-legally binding agreement. As between the parties that agreed it (or subsequently associated themselves with it), it is likely, if anything, to be politically binding. This means that political consequences could flow from its …

1. Can the Chair of a Plenary Session be changed? 2. Can the Chair arbitrarily decide that consensus has been reached (when it would appear that it has not)? The bottom line is that concerned Parties must raise a point of order and seek a ruling (and vote) if they are unhappy with the procedure […]

What is the legal status of a UN ‘INF’ document? A UN ‘INF’ document is an information document, usually used to share Parties’ views or circulate more general information. It is less formal than a decision document and does not have any legally binding status.

What is the meaning of “Protocol or another legal instrument” and “applicable to all Parties” in the text below? more specifically:  1. “Protocol or another legal instrument”: is it right that the second part does not give any guarantee for a legally binding instrument, since legal instrument can also mean COP decision? 2. “applicable …

1. Are there any rules of procedure for Contact Groups under the UNFCCC, both in terms of how they are established and how they should operate? Do the Draft Rules of Procedure (RoP) of the UNFCCC apply mutatis mutandis to Contact Groups? In particular, does the Contact Group need to discuss all the proposals that […]