This briefing paper sets out the definition of official development assistance (ODA), the legal status of ODA targets and countries’ current levels of ODA.

In this briefing paper, we are set out an analysis of the following question: What sanctions/penalties exist in other environmental treaties (e.g. CITIES, CBD, Montreal Protocol)? Without commenting on the merits of such sanctions/penalties, would any of these be compatible with the Convention or the current LCA text.

1. What is a binding unilateral declaration under international law?  2. What are some examples of binding unilateral declarations under international law? 1. A binding unilateral declaration is a statement made on behalf of a State, which creates legal rights or obligations under international law. Unlike a treaty, a binding unilateral declaration …

1. What are the legal limitations of COP decisions (under the UNFCCC) with regard to WTO/trade law in connection with REDD+? 2. To what extent could a decision that addresses the international drivers of deforestation, for example, request restrictions on the trade in commodities such as palm oil or soya etc, and related subsidies and […]

1. What is the difference between retroactive and retrospective application of a treaty? Is it, in international law, possible to retroactively and/or retrospectively apply the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol? 2. Is it possible for New Zealand to provisionally apply the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol? 3. Is it possible …