The continued failure of the parties to agree a second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol is a cause for concern. Further delay in any agreement for a second commitment period could mean that there will be a gap between commitment periods where the relevant parties are not bound by any emission reduction commitments. A […]

This briefing paper sets out the definition of official development assistance (ODA), the legal status of ODA targets and countries’ current levels of ODA. Downloads available BP16E - Briefing Paper - Official Development Assistance (19 July 2010) (85 kB)

In this briefing paper, we are set out an analysis of the following question: What sanctions/penalties exist in other environmental treaties (e.g. CITIES, CBD, Montreal Protocol)? Without commenting on the merits of such sanctions/penalties, would any of these be compatible with the Convention or the current LCA text. Downloads available BP14E - Briefing …

1. What is a binding unilateral declaration under international law?  2. What are some examples of binding unilateral declarations under international law? 1. A binding unilateral declaration is a statement made on behalf of a State, which creates legal rights or obligations under international law. Unlike a treaty, a binding unilateral declaration …

1. What are the legal limitations of COP decisions (under the UNFCCC) with regard to WTO/trade law in connection with REDD+? 2. To what extent could a decision that addresses the international drivers of deforestation, for example, request restrictions on the trade in commodities such as palm oil or soya etc, and related subsidies and […]