What are the non-market approaches referenced in Art.6 paras.8 and 9 of the Paris Agreement? Advice: Article 6 of the Paris Agreement defines a framework for non-market approaches (NMAs) to sustainable development (para.9) which aim to (a) promote mitigation and adaptation ambition; (b) enhance public and private sector participation in the implementation …

1. Can you review and briefly summarize the existing arrangements between the conference/ meeting of parties to the governing international treaty (e.g. framework agreement) and the conference/meeting of parties to a subsidiary legal instrument (e.g. Biodiversity Convention/Biosafety Protocol, Vienna Convention on the Protection of the Ozone Layer/Montreal …

1. Are there examples from existing Multilateral Environmental Agreements (“MEAs”) that have similar implementation/compliance mechanisms/committees as Article 15 of the Paris Agreement and could serve as models for how to address systemic issues of implementation or compliance? Could you briefly describe how systemic issues were addressed in each …

What are the main legal consequences if a party ratifies the Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol? Advice: 1. Legal obligations contained in the Amendment The main legal effect of the Kigali Amendment is to introduce a new Article 2J, a new Article 5(8) qua and a new Annex F to the Montreal Protocol. Together […]