How are non-party provisions used in international agreements? How have they been used and what are some examples? It is generally recognised that a treaty does not create either obligations or rights for a third State without its consent. An obligation arises for a third State from a provision of a treaty only if the […]

1. What is “MRV”? 2. How does MRV differ from compliance and enforcement? 3. What is ICA? How does ICA relate to MRV? 4. How does MRV function under the Kyoto Protocol, and what elements are involved?  5. To what issues in the UNFCCC negotiations does MRV relate? Are there already provisions for MRV in […]

Is there any hierarchy between the laws of the UNFCCC, ICAO and IMO, so that States can comply with the laws of the UNFCCC and, as long as they are in compliance with the laws of the UNFCCC, then States need not comply with the laws of ICAO/IMO?  Summary There is no hierarchy as such […]

1. What do international law and best practices and standards (including UNFCCC and GCF rules or standards), World Bank policies and guidelines, and US and EU law and best practice standards say about the fiduciary responsibility of trustees, the obligations of consultants, and potential conflicts of interest where one organization plays both roles?  …