1. Does LRTAP contain substantive pollution reduction standards and has it evolved to cover new and additional issues or expanded in geographical scope?  2.Does the Basel Agreement and another Multinational Environmental Agreement (MEA) contain substantive pollution reduction standards?  Summary 1. The LRTAP has evolved to cover new issues and in …

1. There is an ongoing process established by the G20 to determine the amounts of fossil fuels subsidies. Is it possible to have a place in COP discussions to consider this process in order to ensure its full transparency, and ensure its relevancy is captured in the climate regime? Would this mandate come from the […]

1. What is the mandate/provision(s) in the Montreal Protocol that determines the type of gas that will fall within its remit? 2. What definitions and technical guidance are in the Montreal Protocol and how is it determined that a new gas should be added to the Montreal Protocol? Summary: The provisions for amending the Montreal Protocol […]

1) Can MARPOL 73/78 be amended by a decision of the governing body of the treaty so as to include either a cap and trade system for shipping emissions or a bunker fuel levy? 2) If not, can this be done by adopting a new annex (in such a way that does not require ratification)? […]